INCREASING SPEAKING ABILITY BY USING DICE GAMES
(MENINGKATKAN KEMAMPUAN BERBICARA DENGAN MENGGUNAKAN PERMAINAN DADU)
Mohamad Syafiudin (email@example.com)
Kani Sulam Taufik
STKIP PGRI Sidoarjo Jl. Jenggala Kotak Pos 149 Kemiri Sidoarjo
One of the most important four basic skills of learning language is speaking, because the main purpose of learning language is able to communicate. The statements of this research are how the teachers use dice games to increase students’ speaking ability, whether it is able to increase students’ speaking ability effectively and what the students’ responses are. The type of this research was classroom action research with descriptive qualitative methodology that could describe the data of the research in word. The setting was conducted in MI. Sunan Kalijogo and as the subject were the fourth grade students. The results of the research indicated that the dice games were successful to stimulate the students more communicative. It could be known from the enthusiastic of the students when played it also from the score they got. By this game they did not feel that they were forced to speak up.
Keywords: dice game, increase, speaking, ability.
Salah satu hal yang paling penting dari empat keterampilan dasar mempelajari bahasa adalah berbicara, karena tujuan utama mempelajari bahasa yaitu mampu berkomunikasi. Pernyataan dari penelitian ini yaitu bagaimana para guru menggunakan permainan dadu untuk meningkatkan kemampuan berbicara siswa, apakah permainan ini mampu meningkatkan kemampuan berbicara secara efektif dan apa tanggapan dari siswa tersebut. Jenis penelitian ini yaitu penelitian tindakan kelas dengan metodologi kualitatif deskriptif yaitu mendeskripsikan data penelitian dalam bentuk kata. Lokasi dilakukannya penelitian ini yaitu di MI. Sunan Kalijogo sedangkan subjeknya yakni siswa kelas empat. Hasil penelitian ini menunjukkan bahwa permainan dadu berhasil diterapkan untuk merangsang siswa untuk lebih komunikatif. Ini dapat diketahui dari antusias siswa ketika memainkannya juga dari skor yang mereka peroleh. Dengan permainan ini mereka tidak merasakan bahwa mereka dipaksa untuk berbicara.
Kata kunci: permainan dadu, meningkatkan, berbicara, kemampuan.
In order that students are good at English, students have to master the four basic language skills. They are listening, speaking, reading and writing. One of the most important of these four basic skills is speaking. Speaking has essential role in learning English. With speaking students are expected to be able to communicate each other well, because the main purpose of learning language is to be able to communicate.
There are many methods that can be applied in teaching speaking, for example by conversation, singing a song, playing games, etc. Increasing students’ speaking by conversation is good to be applied by teacher, but often many students feel bored when they ordered to speak up, because the lack of vocabulary they had, so the influence they can’t increase their ability well. Then by singing a song, with this method it is also good to do, but not every song can be used in teaching learning because it is not relevant with the curriculum. Then by playing games, there many games that can be applied in teaching speaking such as guessing game, puzzle game, riddles game etc. and each of them are successful to be implemented in teaching learning.
Based on the statements above, the writer want to make a classroom action research about increasing students’ speaking ability by using dice games, because of the writer has never found yet about dice games implemented in the study. In this research the writer would like to use dice games as a technique for teaching speaking because in dice games require creativity to speak up, so it can make students’ more training their brain to utter the ideas. This research must be done, to know how is effect by using dice games to increase students’ speaking ability. The writer aimed to offer an alternative technique in increasing students’ vocabulary by using dice games. The writer interested to investigate how is the implementation of teaching speaking using dice games to increase students’ speaking ability in the fourth grade students of MI. Sunan Kalijogo, how the use dice games in teaching speaking can increase the students’ speaking ability, and what are the students’ responses to the dice games used by the teacher in teaching speaking.
The researcher’s reason chose MI. Sunan Kalijogo as the research place, because during observation, the researcher found that the students having lack of English speaking ability. The writer want to know how the improvement of the students’ speaking if the writer implementing dice games in there. In other hand, the head master of MI. Sunan Kalijogo had given permission to the researcher for education purpose.
The researcher chose the fourth grade student because during observation they had poor, average and good speaking ability. Because of it, the writer chose them as subject of her research.
Speaking skill should be taught and practiced in the language classroom. Because the language course truly enables the students to communicate in English, so speaking skill needs the special treatment. In the reality, in daily life most of people do speaking more than writing; yet many English teachers still spend the majority of class time on reading and writing practice almost ignoring speaking and listening skills. Based on the statement above, there should be a good balance to practice in classroom. According to Hornby (1995:826) speaking is making use of words in an ordinary voice, offering words, knowing and being able to use a language expressing one-self in words, and making speech. Therefore the writer conclude that speaking uses the word and produces the sound to express ourselves either ideas, feeling, thought and needs orally in an ordinary voice. Furthermore, success in communication is often dependent as much on the listener as on the speaker.
There are three components to make fluent in producing speech, namely vocabulary, pronunciation, and grammar. According to Walter (1973:11) speaking is one way of learning about one self. In speaking, someone must face problems that have history and relatively to other people, groups, and the predictions that have been formed for living together. While Tarigan (1990:3) states speaking that is gotten by the children preceded by listening skill. After getting the language input the students are able to master speaking skill. So that, speaking is the way to express the idea and feeling to one another.
Dice games can be defined as something or an instrument that are used to attract students’ motivation to follow the teaching and learning process. Dice games can be picture or numeric surface so they can make the students more interested and focus in learning. By this game the students do not feel that they are forced to learn. They also enable students to acquire new experiences within a foreign language which are not always possible during a typical lesson. Dice games can be alternative teaching technique that will give many advantages for teacher and the students either.
The research was classified as Classroom Action Research. A collaborative action research is an approach whereby a facilitator engaged with a group of participants in the context of their working environment to help to define and explore certain problems and needs. In this study the researcher acted as a real teacher who taught the students. Meanwhile the real teacher acted as observer who observed the teacher who applied the use of dice games in improving students’ speaking ability when the teaching learning process conducted. Since it dealt with the classroom setting, this study was directed to develop the teaching strategy in order to find out the solution to the classroom problem in the teaching of speaking. To handle classroom problem in the teaching of speaking, the real teacher applied the use of dice during the teaching learning process. The design of classroom action research used in this study is cyclical process, which consisted of four steps adapted from Kurt Lewin as planning the action, implementing the action, observing the action, and reflection.
The data obtained in the study were in the form of transcript of observation and student’s scores, and questionnaire. The first data was concerning with the process of the implementation of the action in the context of teaching and learning process.
They were gained from the result of observations. The second data was obtained after the students had a test conducted at the end of each cycle, and the third data is gained from the result of questionnaire.
There were some instruments prepared in order to make easier in monitoring the implementation of teaching and learning activities. All of those instruments were described as follows:
· Observation checklist
The researcher employed observation checklist to find out the data about “dice games” as a technique to teach speaking. The indicators were measured in the checklist, they were; the topic, the technique of conducting the games, the teaching learning process.
In assessing the student’s improvement of speaking, he gave speaking test consisted of 10 questions which are related to the material. He gave it in the end of each cycle for evaluation.
The researcher gave questionnaire to the students in the last cycle, to know what the students’ responses toward teaching learning process.
Findings and Discussion
The researcher found several things that could be noted down from the result of the observation during the technique was implemented. The result showed the development of the students’ speaking ability by using dice games. In this case, the researcher observed what was happening in some activities.
a. First cycle
Planning: The first cycle was held on July 17th, 2013. In this cycle the researcher acted as teacher who carried out the lesson. He got time allotment 1 x 35 minutes to conduct his study, the teacher prepared lesson plan, instructional material, and technique, and the criteria of success. The teacher selected topic under title “things at home”. And he used dices that consisted of numeric, questions, or pictures on its surface. The criteria of success in this cycle based on the observation checklist; the teacher had good performance in implementing the use of dice games technique. Based on the questionnaire; the students were enthusiastic and approximately 50 percent of them participate during the teaching learning process. Based on the assessment; more than or equal to 30 percent of the students’ score of speaking mastery test was greater than or equal to 65. In the last section of this cycle the researcher made notes as a reflection for the next cycle.
Acting: In this activity the teacher explained about how to play dice games which had related to the topic and to make the students understand about the main activity, and then the teacher divided students into four groups each of which comprised six students. After that the teacher gave each of groups three dices to try it at first. As addition, the teacher discussed with the students about the meaning of pictures from the dices. In this section the students could ask a lot to the teacher about the meaning of pictures that they didn’t know yet before.
In this game, each group decided the first player and so on by teacher’s aids. The player was allowed to roll dice one time; he/she had to guess or act as the picture on the dices shown as quick as possible in two minutes of limited time. If he/she could do it well, the turn to roll the dices was the next player. But, if he/she couldn’t, the player would get punishment by singing a song as he/she could.
Observing: Here, the researcher used the observation checklist and the assessment to measure and assess the students’ speaking mastery. The assessment was done when the students learned speaking by using dice games based on their speaking class. The observer observed the activity while the process of teaching and learning speaking immediately.
The result of observation showed that the technique was not done perfectly caused two factors. First, the students had limited vocabulary. They couldn’t memorize the material quickly so that they couldn’t answer/act as the picture shown well. Second, the students were passive to answer/act as picture shown, because they still felt shy, only some of them which were active in answering/acting during teaching learning process.
Reflection: In this cycle the researcher found that there were some important points that should be given more attention. The first was about students’ vocabulary. It was found that there were many students who didn’t know the meaning of the pictures. Here the research should give more material or vocabulary list to them to be learned at home. The second was about the students’ motivation. Here the researcher gave more attention to the students which were passive in answering/acting by giving them a motivation to make them did not feel shy and also giving them spirit to make them enjoy in learning.
b. Second cycle
Planning: This second cycle was held on July 24th, 2013, it was about the problem of the cycle before they were students’ vocabulary, motivation and understanding. Here the researcher gave more attention to the students which had limited vocabulary by giving the vocabulary list to be learnt at home yesterday before. And for who were passive in answering/acting as the picture shown, the researcher gave them a motivation to make them did not feel shy anymore. The researcher helped them in giving the meaning of that vocabulary which they did not know yet the understanding of the games. In second cycle the teacher prepared lesson plan, instructional material, and technique, and the criteria of success. The teacher selected topic under title “things at the school” and remained using dice games with pictures or questions on its surface. Based on the questionnaire; the students were more enthusiastic than the day before and approximately 70 percent of them participate during the teaching learning process. Based on the assessment; more than or equal to 55 percent of the students’ score of speaking mastery test was greater than or equal to 65. In the last section of this cycle the researcher made notes as a reflection for the next cycle.
Acting: In this section, the teacher explained and reminded anymore about dice games which had related to the topic that would be taught and how to play it, and then the teacher delivered students into four groups. In the teaching activity, the teacher distributed the dices as like what the teacher did at the first cycle. Here, there was no different activity as the day before, but the main point of this activity was to make sure that the students could play this game well without any mistakes, misunderstanding, or feeling shy to express their answer, and in the final of game the teacher declared the winner of the game for who never or seldom got punishments.
Observing: The students played dice games very well because they had used the method before. However, in this cycle all the students were motivated to speak in answering or acting as the rule. Their willingness to speak up was better than the previous cycle. Moreover, they enjoyed the learning process. The teacher afforded by giving stimulus and giving positive sign when commenting students could encourage them to speak.
Reflection: In this cycle, the researcher found that there were still errors in their answer, especially in the use of simple grammatical, so it became the important point which should be given more attention. It was found that there were some students still used wrong sentences in example “that is books” or “it are elephant” whereas the right answer is “that is book” or “it is elephant”, but these mistakes were not so fatal because the purpose of this learning was to increase students’ speaking ability not in grammaticality. Next, the researcher had to give more explanation to the students the use of this grammatical for the right and the best answer. And by this second cycle, it could be concluded that the use of picture/questioning dice game could increase students’ speaking ability and it showed that students were ready to be given a new challenge for their learning but remain in the same topic.
c. Third cycle
Planning: The third cycle was held on July 31st, 2013. About the problem in the cycle before, it was about the students’ grammaticality. In this last cycle, the researcher would give more attention to the students by explaining to them the use of grammatical clearly in order that not making wrong sentences and also the rule of the new game that would be played. Based on the questionnaire; the students were enthusiastic and approximately 80 percent of them participate during the teaching learning process. Based on the assessment; more than or equal to 78 percent of the students’ score of speaking ability test is greater than or equal to 65. Knowing the result, it could be concluded that this research can be stopped here.
Acting: The researcher started to explain the material and what the students had to do in the third meeting; the researcher also divided the students become six groups. Then the teacher delivered the media of learning they are game board, numeric dices and punishment picture cards to each group. Before playing the game, the students were allowed to ask a lot to the teacher about the meaning of pictures or sentences that they didn’t know yet before. After the students more understood, the teacher gave oral test to evaluate how much they could increase their speaking ability from this game.
In this game, each group decided the first player and so on by teacher’s aids. Each student had to play with his/her group well. During the students were playing the game, the researcher took around and control the class and sometimes gave spirits to the students about in order not to be despair, and motivated them and also appreciate the students’ participation by saying “good” or “that’s right” in order the students were always motivated during teaching learning process.
Observing: In this cycle, the topic was done well. The students paid attention to the teacher very much, and the students could play the game well and fair. Moreover the condition of the class was quite good. And most of them understood the topic and they could finish the activity very well too.
Reflection: In this cycle the students showed some improvements. They were easier to be controlled than before. They also became confidence to speak up although there were still mistakes in answering especially in grammatical. The method and suggestions that had been applied during the research were applicable. And the result of the method could assist the students to increase their speaking ability.
After having done the previous activity using dice games technique as well as considering the reflection of each cycle, the researcher tried to give some suggestions in order to make the dice games increased the students’ speaking ability as follows: first, the theme must be interesting. The second, explaining dice games method that would be conducted by the students clearly. Third, companying the students’ while doing interaction, observation, or during role-play dice games, in order the students were serious and used their thinking ability maximally to answer or act. The last, finding the way to make students able to keep learning motivation. Therefore, it was better done after the students finish their dice games activity, and make sure that the students understood what they had to repair from their speaking.
Based on the result of the study, it could be concluded that:
1. Dice games could develop and motivate students in learning English, especially speaking. So dice games was effective to use in teaching speaking to increase students’ speaking ability, it was proven by their great responses, It based on the result of questionnaire which showed that more than 83,3% the students were enthusiastic participate during the teaching learning process, and their scores from first until third cycle was improved, it’s proved by the result of assessment, more than 78% of the students’ score of speaking mastery test is greater than or equal to 6.
2. By using dice games, the students’ speaking could be improved, by this technique the students could speak up and remember new vocabulary that had been taught easily. It was proven by the students’ score, in the final value, most the students got greater than 6 in doing the speaking task.
3. About the student responses to the dice games used by the teacher in teaching speaking are: All of the students were happy and interested in the use of this game. Most learners pointed out that it was very useful to make easier speak up and remember the vocabulary for them. During teaching and learning process the students gave good responses towards the use of dice games. This could be seen from their active participation and enthusiasm in teaching learning process.
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